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Friday, February 14, 2020 | History

4 edition of Upper ocean warming found in the catalog.

Upper ocean warming

D. E. Harrison

Upper ocean warming

spatial patterns of trends and interdecadal variability

by D. E. Harrison

  • 118 Want to read
  • 5 Currently reading

Published by U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oceanic and Atmospheric Research Laboratories, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory in Seattle, Wash .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Oceanography -- Research -- United States,
  • Ocean temperature -- Observations,
  • Ocean temperature -- Data processing,
  • Convection (Oceanography) -- Research

  • Edition Notes

    StatementD.E. Harrison, Mark Carson.
    GenreObservations.
    SeriesNOAA technical memorandum OAR PMEL -- 138, Contribution no. 3144 from NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Contribution (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)) -- no. 3144.
    ContributionsCarson, Mark., Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsGC58 .H347 2008, QC807.5.U6 P3 no.138
    The Physical Object
    Paginationiii, 31 p. :
    Number of Pages31
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL22654786M
    LC Control Number2008412749

    Hans U. As a heat and carbon reservoir for the world, the ocean has been a reliable buffer, largely shielding us from the worst effects of global warming. This means that the greenhouse radiation from the atmosphere affects only the top few millimeters of the ocean. The logical approach would have been to model the oceans first there were some reasonable ocean models at the timethen adding the atmospheric factors. One such example is the naturally occurring heat exchanges during El Nino Southern Oscillations events [explained best by Trenberth and Fasullo ]. Regionally, it influences the pace at which glaciers carrying ice from the world's major land-based ice sheets on Greenland or Antarctica flow to the sea.

    Thus, it gradually rises, returning south at a shallower depth. The complex interactions between continued emissions of greenhouse gases, consequent energy imbalance, and changes in the storage and transport properties of heat in the ocean will largely determine the speed and magnitude of longterm anthropogenic climate change impacts. Timlin, In this scenario, convection and deepwater formation slow, as does the MOC. In a paper published in the Journal of Climate inPurkey and her co-author, Gregory Johnsonan oceanographer at the University of Washington, found that while advection may be responsible for some of the changes in AABW observed around Antarctica and farther north, another process, called isopycnal heave, is responsible for most of the deep-ocean changes. Their hope claim is that there can be occasions when salinity, rather than temperature, is the prime determining factor in the density of the surface waters.

    Young Beijing: China Ocean Press. Winds blowing off the Antarctic ice sheets push sea ice away from some regions of the coast to form ice-free areas called polynyas. Hubert H. The largest changes in ocean temperatures were observed in the upper 75 m, due to closer proximity to the atmosphere and the large mixing within this layer IPCC 5th Assessment Report. In one of his last publications before his death inCarl-Gustav Rossby, a legendary atmospheric scientist, elegantly summarized the importance of the ocean within the climate system as: "Anomalies in heat probably can be stored and temporarily isolated in the sea and after periods of the order of a few decades to a few centuries again influence the heat and water-vapour exchange with the atmosphere.


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Upper ocean warming book

Svensmark, and E. In addition to impacting sea-surface temperatures, the increase in open-water conditions has been linked with observed shifts in wind and weather patterns in the region. Polynyas — areas of open water amid sea ice — are fairly common in Antarctic coastal regions where winds or upwelling of warmer ocean water can cause the sea ice to move or melt.

The major impact will be on heat storage and sea-level rise, Purkey says. Figure 1a. Global Warming Prevention and discuss what solutions to global warming have been put forth by scientists and politicians such as Al Gore.

Global warming's effect on oceans is greater than realized, researchers say

In a few locations at high latitudes, surface water becomes dense enough to sink rapidly to the bottom of the ocean, allowing communication between the atmosphere and the abyss. Industrial-era global ocean heat uptake doubles in recent decades. It is vital to improving projections of how much and how fast Earth will warm and seas rise in the future.

Niiler, Nevertheless, it is likely that these concentrations reached several ppm during the PETM. However, CH4 exists in far lower concentrations than CO2 in the atmosphere, and its concentrations by volume in the atmosphere are generally measured in parts per billion ppb rather than ppm.

Oceans act like massive sponges, with surface waters soaking up heat and dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Jones, C. During the s and s, an international program called the World Ocean Circulation Experiment collected thousands of such profiles around the globe.

But then, no one ever knew whether or not it was good or bad. White, and D. Soon, and S. Wigley, and P. What is causing the hypothesized decrease in sinking of waters around Antarctica?

Ocean Warming

Most estimates of ocean warming have been limited to the upper meters of water, owing to the limited availability of ocean-temperature data below that depth.

CH4 also has a considerably shorter residence time in the atmosphere than CO2 the residence time for CH4 is roughly 10 years, compared with hundreds of years for CO2. In a negative SAM phase, cold air spreads seaward from Antarctica, holding back westerly storms.

A massive ice-free area, spanning Upper ocean warming booksquare kilometers — nearly the size of Texas — was observed, surrounded by the meter-thick ice typical of this seasonally frozen sea. Galvanized iron buckets were preferred, mainly because they lasted longer than the wood and canvas.They calculate that there was an increase of about 2 x 10 23 joules from towhich computes into a mean warming of the ocean (from surface to 3, meters depth) of °C.

The increased heat content of the global ocean, they note, indicates a warming rate of watts/m 2 over the Earth’s surface. Humans thus, living at the interface of the land, ocean and atmosphere, only feel a sliver of the true warming cost of fossil fuel emissions.

This 90% of extra heat taken up by the ocean is mostly in the upper meters (m) layer (about 60% of total excess heat), while 30% is stored in layers deeper than m (IPCC 5 th Assessment Report. May 20,  · The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean warming are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate atlasbowling.com by: Estimating global ocean heat content changes in the upper m since and the influence of climatology choice.

Journal of Climate, 27,doi/ JCLI-D A global warming hiatus, also sometimes referred to as a global warming pause or a global warming slowdown, is a period of relatively little change in globally averaged surface temperatures.

In the current episode of global warming many such year periods appear in the surface temperature record, along with robust evidence of the long-term warming trend.

Nov 22,  · Book Review: Global warming and oceans, a 21st century perspective now routinely monitors the temperature and salinity of the upper ocean. The series of altimeter satellites continues.